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Importance of Liberalism in French Political Development

            France, between the years 1815-1848, there were two monarchies ruling France separately, the Bourbon and the Orleanist in 1830. During 1815-1830, with the Bourbons ruling the country, is the conflict between the idea of constitutional monarchy accepting many of the principles if the Revolution of 1789 and, in outright opposition, the Ultra-Royalist idea of absolute monarchy supported by the church. Louis XVIII was a relatively more liberal minded king, he ruled according to the Charter and, he wished to promote and maintain the liberties guaranteed by it. However, the rising influence of the Ultra-Royalists in the government, posed obstacles to his rule, and eventually became less liberal so as to get rid of the Ultra-Royalists. Louis XVIII¡¦s brother, Comte d¡¦Artois succeeded him to be the head of the state, who was the leader of the Ultra-Royalists, was known as Charles X. Naturally, he was absolutely an opponent to liberalism, who was also a believer of the Devine Right of kings and against all moderate policies. Facing great opposition of the liberals and intellectuals, and seeing the hopelessness of his position, he was finally forced to abdicate in 1830. The gaining of power of Louis Philippe of the Orleanist family seemed to be the turning point of the French history when the first elected French king started to rule the state. Superficially, the power of the king was further limited by the new charter, and would be more liberal. But in fact, the government was corrupted and was in total control of the Chief Minister, Guizot who was very conservative and refused to make France more liberal. During the period1815-1848, when compared with the other European monarchies, the French monarchy was a liberal one indeed, in terms of its charters proposed. But actually, the real situation was not the case. Though the kings¡¦ power was limited, some of its limitations made it not able to make the people of the state enjoying liberties guaranteed by the Charter.