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Issues and Challenges of integrating

            Issues and Challenges of integrating.
             With the advent of the 21st century, technology has become the driving force in the delivery of instruction to today's youth. Although information technology has become increasingly accessible resources for educators to use in their teaching activities, most teachers are still unable to integrate it in their teaching and learning processes.
             This paper sets out to examine, through a sample of related studies on technology integration, the challenges of integrating technologies into instructional practices.
             In the light of the review of the existing literature, suggestions to integrate instructional technologies into teaching and learning practices are provided, in order to enable educators to deliver effective teaching and to enhance overall professional productivity.
             Introduction and Background.
             Over the past few years , the theme of integration of technology in teaching and learning , has popped up more than ever in technical reports , in professional journals , in scholarly publications , in doctoral dissertations and in conferences.
             Integration technology in teaching and learning seems to have indeed become a natural norm.Although many of us have reached a state where we can no longer conceive of what it would be like to teach without technology , for the vast majority of teachers in schools and universities , exactly the reverse continues to be true . And after more than a decade of living with micrcomputers and related technologies , increasingly , most of us are still unable to employ them with great fluency in our teaching and learning process. Hence the need that more extensive and more effective utilization of computer , networking and other technologies remains crucial to the improvement of education .
             Efforts to integrate technology in teacher education have illustrated many challenges and barriers to implementation (Beals, 1991; Bull , et al , 1989).