In the late sixteenth century, the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands fought for and won their independence from Spain as the Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The Dutch Republic in 1650 was independent under the Peace of Westphalia. It was a dominant power in Europe commercially, financially, and militarily. In this period the Netherlands experienced a golden age. The province of Holland was the most powerful. Holland also financed the Dutch in many wars. Merchant shipping was the base of financial security, but when strong powers such as England engaged in warfare with the Dutch, it caused many losses in the Baltic Sea Trade Competition led to warfare with England. There were challenges to the security, unity, and prosperity of the Dutch Republic from 1650 to 1713.
There were many challenges to security in the Dutch Republic. The Netherlands is situated around many European nations, especially Britain who at that time posed a threat. As shown in the map, in 1645 voyages of Dutch ships