Carbohydrates are a major source for living organisms. Our mitochondria break down carbohydrates and use the chemical energy released from its bonds to live. Carbohydrates have four functions, which include energy metabolism, structural components, and cell-to-cell contacts and recognition. The basic unit or monomer for carbohydrate is monosaccharide or simple sugars. An example of monosaccharide would be glucose, fructose, and galactose. Carbohydrates are composed of thousands of monomers are called polysaccharides. Some examples of polysaccharides would be starch, cellulose, and glycogen.
Lipids store energy, protect and cushion body organs, are structural components of membranes, and are chemical messengers of hormones. The monomers of lipids would be fatty acids. Types of fatty acids would be fats which include oils and animal fats, phospholipids which include the cell membrane structure, waxes which include water proof coating on leaves, fruits, feathers, skins of animals, and steroids, which include cholesterol, sex hormones, and bile acids.
Proteins are very important. They provide structure. Organic catalysts are mostly made up of proteins. They are also used to store energy and act as chemical messengers to hormones and antibodies. Amino Acids are the monomers of proteins. The basic parts of an amino acid are an amine group, a carboxylic group, and a side chain and all attached to an alpha-carbon. There are two types of proteins, fibrous proteins which provide structure and are usually long and thin. Examples of fibrous proteins would be muscles, hair, cartilage, veins, and ducts. Globular proteins are proteins that transport oxygen and nutrients, fight invasions by foreign objects, help maintain homeostasis in the body, transport electrons and catalyze reaction that would take too long in their absence.
The last organic compound is Nucleic Acids. Nucleic Acids are the instruction set of DNA, protein synthesis of DNA and RNA, and the energy metabolism of ATP.