Reinforcement means that when the consequence produces, it either strengthens the behaviour or stops the behaviour, there have four kinds of reinforcement such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Now, I would like to focus on positive and negative reinforcement. When we impose the events, which either add the desirable event or remove the undesirable event, then it reinforced the behaviours, the positive or negative reinforcement will strengthen our behaviours, from current to future. Here are the examples of these two situations.
First of all, the positive reinforcement, when the children gets 100 marks on his/her dictation, then his/her parents buy the toy to him as encouragement, then the children will keep going on to get other 100 marks to get the extra toy. In this case, the toy is a reward, which reinforced the children to work harder, and continuing to get 100 marks in the future. The children who get 100 marks is the behaviours, then he/she is rewarded by giving the toy which is pleasant consequence, so the toy which reinforced the children behaviour to continue to get other 100 marks, the toy which is the desirable event and a pleasant stimulus, so the children will tend to get the other 100 marks in the future and obtain the extra toy.
On the other hand, the negative reinforcement, the children who always be the good son/daughter, because he/she can avoid the unfavourable judgment by their parents, so the children will continue to be the good children. In this case, the unfavourable judgment is the reinforcement, which reinforces the children to continue to be the good children, so that the children can avoid the unpleasant consequence in the future. The children to be the good son/daughter is the behaviour, and the unfavourable judgement is the undesirable event and a unpleasant stimulus, as the children want to avoid the unfavourable judgement,