Teeth can be affected by a variety of diseases as well as by developmental malformations. The common diseases of human dentition are dental caries, periodontal disease, and malocclusion.
Dental caries is a bacterially caused resorption or destruction of the enamel and dentin of the tooth, leading eventually, if untreated, to an infection of the dental pulp and an abscess of the apex of the tooth. The caries-causing bacteria proliferate within a protective covering, called plaque, on the tooth surfaces and produce both acid and enzymes to break down the calcified substances of the tooth. Sweets and other foods that stick to the tooth surface increase the activity of the