Norman MacCaig was known to base his themes on the landscape and the natural world. In his poem November Nights he bases his theme on features of Edinburgh, the city where he was brought up in.
He states: "I gulp down winter raw. ┬Ł
By analysing this, we realise that he is trying to say that the weather is very harsh or extremely cold. He also produces a feeling of great pain almost as though the fro