Hobbes Vs. Locke
"And in him consisteth the essence of the commonwealth, which (to define it) is one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants one with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all, as he shall think expedient, for their peace and common defense (pg.109).
What is a state of peace and harmony? Does it exist? People have been asking these questions for centuries, yet the answers still remain a mystery. Thomas Hobbs, however, believed in the possibility of such paradise on Earth. In his book, Leviathan, Hobbs conveys theory of achieving commodious living by creating a structure based on social contract and laws of nature. Hobbs argues that the only way to achieve true commonwealth is by establishing an absolute sovereignty. In this essay I will examine reasons why totalitarian power is not necessary, and in a certain extend threatening to maintain the laws of nature.
Hobbs claims that in the state of nature human being would live in a state of war. All human beings are created the same, physically and psychologically: we have same capacity to learn from our experience and gain prudence and wisdom, as well as to kill each other. We have senses and passions, which overcome our reason, therefore when we develop same goals we become competitors to each other, therefore- enemies. Since by the law of nature we can do anything according to our judgment and reason, we will try to overcome or destroy each other. When people become competitors, it is, therefore, in their nature to seek to eliminate their enemy, using "all means we can to defend ourselves (p.80). Consequently, even if we attain all that we need, we will always assume conflict, either in means of defending our lives from an enemy or in order to get rid of prospective danger of doing so. Therefore, we strive for peace.
Hobbs draws inevitable laws of nature: to seek