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9/11 Effects On Economy


Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has gradually evolved towards a broad notion of

security, which tends to conflate several notions into a security continuum, ranging from

illegal immigration to organised crime and international terrorism (Makarenko, 2002: 1)

This amalgamation discourse (Bigo and Leveau, 1992) is however not self-evident when

reviewing the particular national concerns with terrorism.

Despite ample evidence that terrorist groups are increasingly operating on a transnational

basis, national secret services have traditionally tended to focus their intelligence-gathering

operations on domestically active organisations. Indeed, the EU TE-SAT

reports that domestic (as opposed to international) terrorism

continues in certain EU countries. In France and Spain, ETA continued its terrorist activity,

and numerous attacks were carried out in Spain. The operational capability of ETA is

apparently maintained despite extensive law enforcement cooperation between French and

Spanish authorities. Also in Spain, the Spanish left-wing group Revolutionary Armed Groups

First of October (GRAPO) carried out armed robberies, but it suffered a serious setback when

its management structure was dismantled in coordinated French-Spanish operations.

In Northern Ireland and the British mainland, RIRA

group. In Corsica and to some extent on mainland France, Corsican nationalist terrorist groups

committed a large number of attacks. "Anarchist terrorism  is reported to be still active in

parts of the EU, notably Spain, Italy, Greece and Germany. In Italy, Red Brigades for the

construction of a Combatant Communist Party (BR-PCC) murdered an economic adviser of

the Minister of Labour. Moreover, the Revolutionary Front for Communism claimed

responsibility for two failed bomb attacks. A bomb attack against the

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