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9/11 Effects On Economy

             Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has gradually evolved towards a broad notion of .
             security, which tends to conflate several notions into a security continuum, ranging from .
             illegal immigration to organised crime and international terrorism (Makarenko, 2002: 1).
             This amalgamation discourse (Bigo and Leveau, 1992) is however not self-evident when .
             reviewing the particular national concerns with terrorism. .
             Despite ample evidence that terrorist groups are increasingly operating on a transnational .
             basis, national secret services have traditionally tended to focus their intelligence-gathering .
             operations on domestically active organisations. Indeed, the EU TE-SAT.
             report on terrorist .
             activity in the European Union.
             reports that domestic (as opposed to international) terrorism .
             continues in certain EU countries. In France and Spain, ETA continued its terrorist activity, .
             and numerous attacks were carried out in Spain. The operational capability of ETA is .
             apparently maintained despite extensive law enforcement cooperation between French and .
             Spanish authorities. Also in Spain, the Spanish left-wing group Revolutionary Armed Groups .
             First of October (GRAPO) carried out armed robberies, but it suffered a serious setback when .
             its management structure was dismantled in coordinated French-Spanish operations. .
             In Northern Ireland and the British mainland, RIRA.
             was the most active terrorist .
             group. In Corsica and to some extent on mainland France, Corsican nationalist terrorist groups .
             committed a large number of attacks. “Anarchist terrorism” is reported to be still active in .
             parts of the EU, notably Spain, Italy, Greece and Germany. In Italy, Red Brigades for the .
             construction of a Combatant Communist Party (BR-PCC) murdered an economic adviser of .
             the Minister of Labour. Moreover, the Revolutionary Front for Communism claimed .
             responsibility for two failed bomb attacks.

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