I - FRAMING TERRORISM AS A COMMON AND CURRENT THREAT TO EU .
Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has gradually evolved towards a broad notion of .
security, which tends to conflate several notions into a security continuum, ranging from .
illegal immigration to organised crime and international terrorism (Makarenko, 2002: 1).
This amalgamation discourse (Bigo and Leveau, 1992) is however not self-evident when .
reviewing the particular national concerns with terrorism. .
Despite ample evidence that terrorist groups are increasingly operating on a transnational .
basis, national secret services have traditionally tended to focus their intelligence-gathering .
operations on domestically active organisations. Indeed, the EU TE-SAT.
report on terrorist .
activity in the European Union.
reports that domestic (as opposed to international) terrorism .
continues in certain EU countries. In France and Spain, ETA continued its terrorist activity, .
and numerous attacks were carried out in Spain. The operational capability of ETA is .
apparently maintained despite extensive law enforcement cooperation between French and .
Spanish authorities. Also in Spain, the Spanish left-wing group Revolutionary Armed Groups .
First of October (GRAPO) carried out armed robberies, but it suffered a serious setback when .
its management structure was dismantled in coordinated French-Spanish operations. .
In Northern Ireland and the British mainland, RIRA.
was the most active terrorist .
group. In Corsica and to some extent on mainland France, Corsican nationalist terrorist groups .
committed a large number of attacks. â€œAnarchist terrorismâ€ is reported to be still active in .
parts of the EU, notably Spain, Italy, Greece and Germany. In Italy, Red Brigades for the .
construction of a Combatant Communist Party (BR-PCC) murdered an economic adviser of .
the Minister of Labour. Moreover, the Revolutionary Front for Communism claimed .
responsibility for two failed bomb attacks.