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9/11 Effects On Economy


             I - FRAMING TERRORISM AS A COMMON AND CURRENT THREAT TO EU
             Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has gradually evolved towards a broad notion of
             security, which tends to conflate several notions into a security continuum, ranging from
             illegal immigration to organised crime and international terrorism (Makarenko, 2002: 1)
             This amalgamation discourse (Bigo and Leveau, 1992) is however not self-evident when
             reviewing the particular national concerns with terrorism.
             Despite ample evidence that terrorist groups are increasingly operating on a transnational
             basis, national secret services have traditionally tended to focus their intelligence-gathering
             operations on domestically active organisations. Indeed, the EU TE-SAT
             reports that domestic (as opposed to international) terrorism
             continues in certain EU countries. In France and Spain, ETA continued its terrorist activity,
             and numerous attacks were carried out in Spain. The operational capability of ETA is
             apparently maintained despite extensive law enforcement cooperation between French and
             Spanish authorities. Also in Spain, the Spanish left-wing group Revolutionary Armed Groups
             First of October (GRAPO) carried out armed robberies, but it suffered a serious setback when
             its management structure was dismantled in coordinated French-Spanish operations.
             In Northern Ireland and the British mainland, RIRA
             group. In Corsica and to some extent on mainland France, Corsican nationalist terrorist groups
             committed a large number of attacks. "Anarchist terrorism  is reported to be still active in
             parts of the EU, notably Spain, Italy, Greece and Germany. In Italy, Red Brigades for the
             construction of a Combatant Communist Party (BR-PCC) murdered an economic adviser of
             the Minister of Labour. Moreover, the Revolutionary Front for Communism claimed
             responsibility for two failed bomb attacks. A bomb attack against th


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