In this essay about the adaptations of the earthworm I will discuss very briefly general adaptations that earthworms have for survival.
By the shape of the earthworms body being cylindrical it is a very good shape for digging tunnels into the ground , the pointed chaetae also help by providing a source of anchorage and also a levering action to help the earthworm move along.
The secretions of mucous that the earthworm exhibits help to bond the various sand and soil particles together thereby making them hard and this prevents a tunnel that the earthworm has dug from collapsing on the earthworm and also keeps it open.
The earthworm`s source of food is dead or decaying plants, because of this there is not much of a chance of this sort of food running out and also the earthworm has very little competition from other organisms in its environment.
Normally the earthworm has a very slow metabolic action thereby it doesn't have to obtain too much oxygen, The earthworm can obtain oxygen from the ground or in same cases from water.
The nephridiophore sphincter muscle prevents the worm from losing too much water , and this done by contractions of the sphincter. Due to this more water is then absorbed into the nephridial tube.
Although the earthworm does not have a definite head which can be clearly distinguished , it does have certain sensory organs at the anterior end and when it receives a harmful stimuli it uses its strong muscular system to get away from it.
The distance of diffusion occurring between the absorbtion surface and the blood vessels. The ability of erythrocruorin to carry oxygen ensures that there is a very high oxygen capacity in the body.
The cuticle and the epidermis form a very thin layer to allow gasses to easily diffuse across these surfaces.The goblet cells are also present on the epidermis and these are involved in the secretion of the mucous to aid the earthworm in locomotion.