Mandala

I. How are the architectural structures of the Stupas and the paintings of Mandalas related to each

Mandalas create circular symbolic designs, similar to that of Buddha's crown, which is the top spire, forming a circle on the Stupa. The hemispherical mound forms a drum shaped base. In addition to this, the head of Buddha forms a square as well as the base of the Stupa. Within the circle of the Mandala, a square is formed that has four T-shaped gate-like entrances leading to the center of the Mandala. This is similar to the four legs of Buddha that form steps of the lower terrace which represent four separate T-shape gate entrances. Each is a circle inscribed in a square. Both the Stupa and Mandala have a Buddha at the center of these creations. Both centers represent the essence, the heart of Buddha.

III. Discuss the Paleolithic period to the Neolithic period. What do the existing art works convey about these time periods?

The Paleolithic period marked the development of the human species. This era refers to the "Old Stone Age,  a time period during which the majority of the population was making tools of stone. The people of this time were nomadic and were also hunters and gatherers. A large part of this civilization spent a lot of time in caves where they painted w/ brushes made of animal hair. They finger painted using colors/pigments made by mixing minerals and animal fat, or vegetable oil. An example of art from this period is the Venus of Willenorf. This particular artwork conveys full figured women, representing pregnancy/fertility. This suggests the practice of fertility rituals. The cave painting of animals suggests the practice of hunting.

The Neolithic period is known as the "new Stone Age,  a time when people were living in a more community based environment. They had established villages with farms, and the animals were now domesticated. This period developed pottery,

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