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            William Henry Fox-Talbot was born on February 11 1800. In school, Talbot was a brilliant student who had a huge interest in botany. In 1824 he met a man by the name of John Herschel whom he met through his extensive family connections. The two men established a friendship and scientific collaboration that later influenced Talbot's turn towards research into light and optical phenomena.
             In 1833, during a family vacation, he found that the camera lucida and camera obscura were of no assistance to him in capturing an image he desired and he wanted another way of doing so. Soon after, the concept of photography was born. By coating ordinary writing paper with washes of table salt and silver nitrate, Talbot embedded a light-sensitive silver chloride in the fibers of the paper. When placed under the sun the paper would darken producing a photographic silhouette. Talbot called these resulting negatives sciagraphs. Unable at this stage to use his paper in a camera he asked an artist friend to scratch a design into a varnish on coated glass. Using this as a negative he then made multiple copies on his photographic paper originating the technique now known as cliché-verre. It was also Talbot who first mentioned stabilizing his images against the action of light by washing them with potassium iodide - a process now called fixing.
             Talbot's "photos- had been achieved by the direct action of light. When a negative was removed from the camera, the image was fully visible but these required enormous hours of solar energy and very long exposures. After tons of research he discovered that a very short exposure triggered an invisible effect in his paper. By adding a chemical developer, Talbot could build this unseen image into a strong negative. Exposure times that usually took hours or minutes plunged down to seconds. Talbot called this new negative process the Calotype.

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