Homeostasis ensures that the internal environment of the body is kept within narrow limits. This ensures that optimum conditions are provided for cells to function.
Q1 Why the body temperature must be maintained around 37°C.
Homeostasis ensures that the body's internal environment is kept at a moderately constant/stable in core properties such as pH and temperature. The homeostatic control mechanisms allow organisms to seize some level of autonomy from the external environment by seeking to sustain a steady internal environment, where bodily functions can be carried out optimally. As such, human beings are delineated as homeotherms given that they are able to sustain a core temperature averaging around 37°C. Towards this end, the hypothalamus plays the role of a processing center situated within the brain that directs body temperature. The hypothalamus effects changes in response to alterations in body temperature by activating adjustments to effectors in the form of muscles manipulating body hair movement and operation of the sweat glands. Hence, the human body' temperature can only be regarded as stable provided that the heat produced matches heat lost.
The sustenance of the temperature of the body at a steady level is paramount given that the living processes within the cells closely depends on the action of the enzymes that work effectively in a set of stable conditions, especially at optimal temperature and pH. Any alterations in the set properties influence the utility of the enzymes and can yield to the death of the cells, and, ultimately, the death of the whole organism. This stresses the significance of regulation and sustenance of a constant internal environment. Nevertheless, the internal environment may not be entirely constant as it may be tolerated to fluctuate, albeit at exceptionally constricted limits.
Indeed, temperature regulation is imperative given that the speed of metabolic reactions is directed by enzymes activity that only functions optimally at temperatures that neighbor body's core temperature of 37°C.