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Immanuel Kant and the Metaphysics of Morality

             Why do we need a metaphysics of morals? .
             Kant argues that a metaphysics of morals is necessary for humans to correctly carry out the "right" or moral action in every situation, since they are often affected by numerous inclinations and desires at once. Without a concrete metaphysics of morals, judgments of morality will be subject to corruption and perversion.
             2. In the beginning of section one, Kant considers several qualities that Hume has called praiseworthy -- wit, judgment, courage, resolution, perseverance, moderation -- and deems them ambiguous at best, certainly not worthy of esteem by themselves.
             Why? Can you think of instances in which the above qualities have proven evil?.
             In Kant's view, qualities such as courage, resolution, and perseverance are not worthy of esteem by themselves because they can be harmful and used for evil if the individual that possesses these qualities also possesses a will, or character, that is not good. For example, someone could have the quality of being resolute once they make a decision. If the decision they make is ill intentioned or will result in harm for many people, that individual's resolution is a quality that should not be esteemed because it is not paired with good will.
             3. Why does Kant reject the notion that man's end is happiness, or even survival? Do you agree? .
             Kant believes that an individual is naturally equipped with the proper tools to most efficiently reach the end it is destined for. For humans, we are equipped with reason as our most powerful tool. Having established this basis, Kant argues that man's end therefore cannot be happiness or preservation, since reason does not contribute to this end. He cites as evidence that individuals who have a more "cultivated" reason' are often less happy than individuals who do not contemplate satisfaction in life. Thus, Kant concludes that man's reason is destined for an end other than happiness; instead, the purpose of reason is to direct humans to good will itself.

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