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Chemistry - The Solubility of Various Substances in Water (H2O)

             To measure the solubility of the given substances (Ammonium Chloride, Potassium Nitrate, Sodium Chloride, Copper Carbonate, Iodine, Sugar, Wax, Sand, Oil, Starch) at various temperatures in water.
             Background Information.
             Why water is an important solvent? .
             Water is capable of dissolving a wide variety of different substances, which is why it is referred to as the universal solvent. Water is an excellent solvent because of its chemical composition and physical qualities. Polar arrangements of hydrogen and oxygen atoms are present in water molecules. Having positive electrical charges (hydrogen) and negative electrical charges (oxygen) in water molecules allows the water molecules to become attracted to other types of molecules. Water has the tendency to become heavily attracted to different molecules which then leads to the interference with the intermolecular forces that hold the salt molecule together and dissolve it.
             What is Solubility?.
             Solubility is a quantitative term. The solubility of a substance refers to the maximum amount of that substance which can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a certain temperature.
             A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at that temperature is described as a saturated solution.
             Factors Which Affect Solubility.
             Temperature, along with amount/size of the solute are both determinants of the rate of reaction on the solubility of solids and liquids in water. A predominant trend is evident with an increase in temperature equating to an increase in the rate of reaction in solids and liquids within a solvent.
             Solute and Solvent Interactions.
             The relation between the solute and solvent is very important in determining solubility. If the attraction between the solute and solvent is strong, greater solubility will occur. However, if the attraction between the solute and solvent is weak, it will result in lesser solubility. It is common for polar solutes to dissolve best in polar solvents, while non-polar solutes tend to dissolve best in non-polar solvents.

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