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Deforestation and India

            Deforestation is currently becoming one of the major global ecological issues. Whether it occurs in the temperate or tropical regions, deforestation is an environmental problem that continues to endanger the wellbeing of the world population, cause an extinction threat to most of the plant and animal species as well as increase the global warming (Colfer 10). Due to deforestation the world's largest rain forest, Amazon, is shrinking at a rate between 15,000 and 20,000 km2 per year during the last two decades (Franchito 73). Additionally, about 15 million hectares of tropical and temperate rainforests are lost annually with the deforestation in Sumatra rainforest in Indonesia accounting for over 70% of this estimate. The deforestation in Indonesian Sumatra has surpassed that of the Amazon in Brazil and is estimated that it accounts for about 15% of all greenhouse gas emissions (Colfer 51).
             Trade in timber is the major cause of deforestation in Indonesia. About 70% of the Indonesian rainforest particularly in the Sumatra region has been cleared as a result of logging. While most countries have illegalized timber exports, Indonesia has far fallen short of these regulations. Besides, timber exports contribute about 10% of the Indonesian GDP, making it difficult to eliminate timber logging and trade. As indicated by McDermott and Kanowski, countries like Indonesia with large forest cover are more likely to benefit from the lucrative timber trade 254. However, ecological footprint resulting from such trade is far and wide. While the Indonesian government is reluctant to reduce the trade and logging activities in its major forests, the effects of deforestation have a profound effect on other industries such as tourism and fishing. Continuous logging has also been found to have adverse effects on the social settings. Communities that depended on the forest have been displaced or their economic activities changed due to clearance of natural forest cover (Perez 163).

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