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Neurodevelopment and Neurocognitive Disorders

            ADHD, Autism, developmental delays and learning disabilities are just a few disorders that fall into the category of neurodevelopmental disorders. A Neurodevelopmental disorder is an onset of the brain dysfunctions, however depending on the cause; onset can be slow or gradual with deteriorating causes. The few complications that caused by this disorder are seizures, behavioral problem, motor dysfunction and cognitive dysfunctions. While there are varieties of explanations cause of these disorders from genetics to environmental factors, the cause is still unknown. .
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the disorders that covered under neurodevelopmental disorder. According to the definition, in DSM 5, ADHD is often referred to as hyperactivity and categorized by inability or difficulty to maintain task-oriented behavior. Children express impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity, such as haphazard running or fidgeting ( Nigget al., 2005).One of the examples of ADHD would be the child that have an issue of paying attention not just in school but at home as well, additionally difficulty in organizing and paying attention to the detail as well as excessive talking and ability to remain still. According to DSM-5, the criteria's for ADHD is individuals that show the persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that conflict with function and development. The six or more symptoms in children up to age of 16 and five or more in 17 years older and older. Additionally the symptoms must have been present for six month or longer. Some of the symptoms of inattention are: often forgetful in daily activities, distracts easily, had trouble with activity and organizing tasks, makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at home and do not follow through with the instructions. Also six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity in children up to age 16 and five or more in 17-year-old or older must be present as well.

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