The two historical phenomena's, the 'Questione Meridionale' and Italian emigration are a huge impact on how Italy is the way it is. Emigration was seen at an all-time high after the unification of Italy. The two phenomena have a relationship which show why Italy is the way it is and how Italian identity is now seen in today's world. There were many other factors that concerned Italy after the unification but emigration was the most important and the most occurring in history. .
The 'Questione Meridionale' came about immediately after the unification of Italy in 1861. The name is given to all the issues that occurred between the North and South of Italy after the unification. Before the unification there was already differences between the North and South, the North was more modern for that time, it was rich with an economy based on industries and there was a very low rate of illiteracy. Compared to the South, which was very poor, there was a 70% illiteracy rate at the time, there was no middle class, the economy was based on large estates and there was no infrastructure. The economic policy at that time between the North and the South were simply the same rules, the same tax system and the same criminal and civil laws. This then created a fiscal pressure for people of the South as they were not able to keep up with the new ways and support themselves. The economic measures then put an increase on taxes on basic goods which made people of the South more poor and were not able to provide for themselves. This created a grudge towards the regime. Thus became 'il Brigantaggio'.
'Il Brigantaggio' were a group of people who joined together to go against the new changes created in Italy. The group consisted of labourers, peasants, partisans, former Bourbon soldiers and daring women. In Calabria, Puglia, Campania and Basilicata, during the summer of 1861, these armed gangs of robbers began to rob, kill, kidnap and set fire to the property of the new rich.