Crippling Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on the Infant Development .
In today's society, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) continue to have major concerns for various reasons. As well as severe destruction to neonates/ infants during their developmental process. Cocaine substance abuse is classified as an intensely addictive stimulant that affects the body's neurotransmitters. Studies suggest that infants who are exposed to cocaine suffered physiological effect, behavioral problems and were learning disable. Complications from cocaine use also affect the psychological and sociological aspects of the child's life. Prenatal cocaine exposure is an unfortunate dilemma caused by drug intake and is extremely destructive to the child's developmental stages.
Prenatal cocaine exposure consumption became a major health issue of the United States in the 1980's, when a reasonable form of cocaine known as "crack" emerged and became highly accessible to its' users. According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA 2002) during the period 1997 to 2002 there was a significant increase in cocaine consumption. An annual survey conducted on prenatal cocaine exposure, has indicated that the usage of cocaine during child birth is extensive. Findings from the National Survey of drugs have shown that approximately 45000 babies have been prenatally exposed to cocaine. .
Injuries to the fetus are highly critical from cocaine exposure. Research has underscore that offshoots from cocaine do not only spread through the umbilical cord and the placenta, but also to the amniotic fluid which is absorbed by the fetus. The complications from cocaine exposure has exhibited multitudes of defects to the fetus such as low birth weight, deficiency in length, malformation of the fetus, still birth, small head circumference and untimely birth during pregnancy (Schiller, C., & Allen. (2005) ,there is also a high mortality rate from prenatal cocaine exposure or sudden abortion.