This paper discusses the beneficial use of a new clinical trial study pertaining to emergency preservation and resuscitation on patients who have been in a traumatic injury and are at risk of hemorrhage. EPR uses the technique of induced hypothermia, which protects tissue from ischemic injury. .
Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation.
Trauma, or unintentional (accidental) injuries, is the leading cause of death in individuals in the age groups 1-44 and is the fifth leading cause of mortality in the United states (Heron,2010). The major cause of preventable deaths from these traumas was caused by uncontrollable hemorrhaging (Alam, 2009). If doctors had more time to evaluate and repair the damage, they could prevent deaths caused by uncontrolled hemorrhaging. A new clinical trial using induced hypothermia is being conducted by Samuel A. Tisherman at the University of Pittsburg Medical Center (UMPC) Presbyterian Hospital to enable surgeons to fix the structural damage that would otherwise be fatal. This revolutionary procedure is called emergency preservation and recitation (EPR). The blood makes up approximately 8% of an individual's weight. This is approximately 5-6 liters in a healthy adult make and 4-5 liters in a healthy adult female (Marieb, 2013). During a trauma the body can only lose so much blood before serious damage or death results. Doctors classify hemorrhaging on a scale of one through four. This scale denotes the amount of blood loss, the patient's mental status, respiratory rate, peripheral perfusion, pulse rate, blood pressure, and urine output (Garrioch, 2004).
A class one hemorrhage is the least severe. Blood loss ranges from 0-15% or up to 750mL. Minimal physiological changes occur at this level. A class two hemorrhage is characterized by a blood loss of 15-30% or between 750-1500mL. At this stage a patient may start to experience tachycardia (rapid heartbeat). The difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure begins to decrease.