In this essay I will be explaining how the three standard forms of literary discourse, which we have studied in our class apply to the narration of The Death of Ivan Ilych, and allow for the transitioning between the dialogues of characters. This essay will cover excerpts of discourse from pages 39 and 82. These excerpts will enhance focus on the conversations between characters both minor and major by showing how Tolstoy uses these characters in order to transition from one form of discourse to the next. I will begin the essay with brief descriptions of the three forms of discourse, and then transition in to explanations as to how they pertain to the change in characters dialogue within the story.
Discourse is the presentation of language in its entirety. Foucault gives what is possibly the best description of discourse that I could find as it pertains to our course. He says, "Systems of thoughts compromised of ideas, attitudes, and course of action, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds of which they speak" (Foucault). In the previous definition there is one word that I will use to form this essay and show how discourse is applied and presented in The Death of Ivan Ilych. The word "they" is what I will use to measure the presence of the three different forms of discourse within the story. "They," will help show who is speaking, and to whom or what it is they are speaking of or referring to. For there to be a transition between different forms of discourse there must be a change in how a given character's thoughts are presented, but to properly classify which form is being presented I will first provide accurate definitions of the three different forms in order to create a guideline for the body of this essay.
The three different forms of discourse are as follows; Direct, Indirect, and Free Indirect. Direct discourse is a representation of speech in which the speaker's exact words are quoted, as in He said, "I'm not going.