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Types of Literary Theories

             Is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. The word "theory" has become an approach to reading texts. The modern sense of "literary theory" dates only to approximately the 1950s, when the structuralist linguists Ferdinand de Saussure began strongly to influence English language criticism. .
             Critical Theories.
             Deal with knowledge through interpretation to understand the meaning of human text and symbolic expressions including interpretation of texts themselves interpret other texts.
             New Criticism.
             Was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century. According to new criticism, the literary text contains its own meaning within itself. Text is unified whole. There is nothing outside the text, everything is within the text. So for reader, there is no need to look outside the text. It doesn't require any elaborate process of placing it within a context. So it emphasized close reading of the text. According to new criticism, in order to understand text we have to detach the text from context. We should put our prior knowledge aside and the focus should be on close analysis of text. This movement belongs to an American critic John Crow Ransom, he introduce new criticism in 1941. He focused on the unity of text.
             Another new critic is W.K.Wimsat gave two ideas:.
             - Intentional fallacy.
             - Affective fallacy.
             New criticism discarded both terms. Intentional fallacy means there is no need to find out the intension of the author because text is unified. On the other hand Affective fallacy means there is no need to find out the affect on reader because we can't find out the stable meaning or universal meaning, if we look at the affect on reader. New criticism want to become objective in the nature instead of subjectivity. On the other hand, traditional critics focus on intention of the author.

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