Helen Rowland, who is an experienced American writer and journalist, once claims, " Jealousy is the tie that binds, and binds, and binds." In the Greek tragedy Othello by William Shakespeare, envy plays an essential role beyond any other theme such as gender role or love. Iago, who is eminently successful in achieving his, owns needs and benefits are motivated by the hatred towards other people established based on his opinions and suspicions, which constructs the fates of the characters and determines the tragic outcome of the play directly. On one hand, Iago is being jealous of the promotion of someone who never went on the field and were totally inexperienced soldier names Cassio over him. On the other hand, Iago recognizes his jealousy towards other people who have and enjoy their joyful lives. Moreover, the suspicion of the rumor that Othello sleeps with his wife Emilia triggers his envy. As a result, envy is the primary and the most formidable motivation Iago has.
Iago predicts he will be the one who Othello promotes. However, Othello promotes Cassio over him, which initiates his hatred towards Othello. At the very first scene of play, Iago declares with anger about how Othello chooses Cassio who is " book theoric" ( I, I,25) as the Governor over him, where he is the one who Othello has " seen the proof At Rhodes, At Cyprus, and on other grounds" ( I, I, 29-30). In Iago's perspective, Cassio is someone who only knows the theory, and does not have any experience about the war in reality. Despites himself, who knows everything about war, is being put down and does not get enough attention from Othello. Which does not satisfy his needs, and builds his hatred towards Othello. Again, in Iago's first soliloquy, he expresses " Cassio's a proper man ." (I, iii, 383) The idea of Cassio is now young and handsome with a higher ranking than he has generates his hatred towards Othello and also towards Cassio.