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Judicial Review: Marbury v. Madison (1803)

            The doctrine of judicial review is of American origin, so for the purpose of this review I will choose U.S. legal system. In the United States the Doctrine of Judicial review under which legislative and judicial activities are subjected to review by the judiciary - challenging the constitutionality of certain acts. Constitutional courts have to provide constitutional culture in which they will point out the importance of protecting the Constitution, referring to as a supreme law, as well as human and civil rights, because that protection must be applicable upon all social categories. The constitutional culture must exist among the political elites because they represent citizens, but the Constitutional Court must protect Constitutional rights in order to influence certain decisions of legislative branch. Subjects that can be submitted to the Supreme Court can comprise of: Executive actions/ orders made by the President, Government Agency regulations, Congress Legislative actions/ laws, State and local laws, judicial errors.
             In fact, in order for an appeal to be possible there must be some legal grounds, mainly a reversible mistake in the trial procedures, or the abuse of Constitutional rights. The Marbury v. Madison (1803) is Supreme Court's milestone decision on the subject of judicial review, in which the Supreme Court decided that the federal courts have the obligation to evaluate the constitutionality of acts of Congress and to annul them when they are contrary to the Constitution. The Article III, section 2 of the U.S. Constitution gives power to the Supreme Court stating that "The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority." .
             This was the first case to created judicial review powers of the Supreme Court's, hence the importance of the judicial review in general, and all others that came after.

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