Children and Young Athletes have special needs of which sports medicine can be of assistance to them in their demand for sport. Medical Conditions, such as asthma, diabetes and epilepsy, overuse injuries, thermoregulation and resistance training all have an effect on the athlete's participation in sports Management of these factors is used to support the demands of these specific athletes dealing with these conditions.
Asthma is a condition characterised by breathing difficulty where there is a reduction in the width of the airways leading to the lungs, resulting in less air being available to them. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics 7% of girls and 8% of boys suffer with asthma as a child. Activity can lead to an asthma attack resulting in heavy fatigue as lungs narrow. According to Sport Medicine research exercise over a long period of time can improve lungs of asthma-prone athletes; swimming is encouraged as air is forced from lungs into the water furthermore strengthening their lungs. There are various managements that also can prevent and control asthma attacks in sport. Prior to exercise a gradual warm up followed by a post-exercise warm down is encouraged as it will progressively modify breathing patterns, rather than just a sudden, unexpected change in heart rate going straight into activity. Activity should be preceded by controlled breathing and relaxation exercises combined with a steady intensity rate. Water should be consumed at regular breaks as well as medication such as inhalers or ventolin. Coaches or Parents should also have a management plan as well as a first aid kit incase of emergency attacks. These managements can help prevent asthma attacks with children in sport. .
Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin there are two types of diabetes which both lead to high glucose levels. Almost all children with diabetes belong to Type 1 meaning they are insulin dependent.