Understanding the aeromedical factors is essential for the safety of every aviation professional, and the passengers. Pilots and other professional need to understand the interaction of physical environment and body reactions when in flight (Knauff 10). The human medical conditions have been the major contributors to accidents in the modern aviation industry. Scrutiny and development of strategies to minimize the effects of this conditions have been implemented by most of the countries. .
Hypoxia is the condition where the body experience low levels of oxygen (Simon 2). Human tissue that receives less oxygen for the prolonged period will eventually die. The most critical factor for aviation professional is getting sufficient oxygen supply to the brain as any deprivation of can lead to reduced mental functioning and cause fatal errors. It can result from the inability of cells to use oxygen, inadequate oxygen or reduced transportation of oxygen. The four broad types of hypoxia include histotoxic, stagnant, hypemic and hypoxic hypoxia. Symptoms of hypoxia include tingling sensation in fingers and toes, numbness and drowsiness among others. Hypoxia causes the narrowing of the field of vision. It can be prevented through use of supplementary oxygen when flying at high altitudes.
Hyperventilation results from the loss of too much carbon (IV) oxide from the body and consequently unconsciousness that results from the body system efforts to reclaim control of breathing. This can occur when an individual is stressed, frightened, in pain and increasing the rate and depth of respiration. Usually at higher altitudes, pilots tend to increase the rate of breathing and may cause hyperventilation. (Knauff 13). It is important to diagnose correctly hyperventilation because symptoms are almost identical to those of hypoxia. It can cause muscle spasms and a pale appearance in individuals. It can be prevented by breathing normally and treated by reinstituting the levels of carbon (I) oxide in the body.