Jean Piaget, a Swiss developmental psychologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Soviet developmental psychologist had two different viewpoints on a child's development. Although both viewpoints are different, neither are wrong. It is very interesting to understand how "nature" and "nurture" both can have major influences on a child's development. .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is based on nature. He believed the way children learned and developed was natural and came instinctively. He introduced the Theory of Cognitive Development which is made up of 4 developmental stages. Also, Piaget concluded that these stages are universal, not just for one culture. In a web article psychology expert Kendra Cherry explains the stages,.
• The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects.
• The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people.
• The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.
• The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas.
On the other hand, Vygotsky believed that a child's development was based more on cultural factors such as environment, upbringing, and social interactions; thus basing his theory from a nurturing aspect. He also strongly believed that speech is a major psychological tool in the child's development of thinking. Vygotsky then introduced his cultural-historical theory of cognitive development. Vygotsky did not view development in stages nor as a universal concept as Piaget had, however he based his theory on 6 assumptions.