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Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

            Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) refer to pathogens that can be transmitted through sexual contact that caused different types of clinical syndromes and infections (Hill, Elam-Evans, Yankey, Singleton, & Kolasa, 2015). There are many types of sexually transmitted diseases but the common diseases are HIV/AIDS, Genital Herpes, and Viral Hepatitis (Refer to Figure 1 in Appendix).
             The first type of sexually transmitted disease is AIDS/HIV. Goldman, Troisi, and Rexrode (2013) reported that non-treated human immunodeficiency virus brings the outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The virus belongs to the genus Lentivirus that is characterized by long incubation periods, and the family Retroviridae which are enveloped RNA viruses that replicate as part of the host's own DNA. The immune system is damaging by the virus of HIV which affects the body's ability to fight the organisms. Infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions are the way that HIV is transmitted to the body. Besides that, by having sex with infected person, sharing needles and syringes that contaminated with infected are also the way that HIV is transmitted. Furthermore, contact with infected blood from mother to their baby during giving birth or breastfeeding will lead to the transmission of HIV but this risk is smaller to the babies if the mother receives treatment for HIV infection during pregnancy. The symptoms of HIV and AIDS are depending on the stages of infection. In primary stage, most of the HIV infected person suffers from flu-like illness after the virus infects the body within 30 days to 60 days for weeks. Muscle aches, rash, joint pain, headache, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph node which mainly on the neck are the symptoms of HIV (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Cohen (2013) stated that development of many antiretroviral drugs has made HIV infection a treatable chronic disease. Normal quality of life and lifespan is offered by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

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