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Cold War Study Guide

             Algeria - the largest of France's North African colonies. In 1954, radical nationalist groups merged to create the National Liberation Front, and launched an uprising in cities all around Algeria. France, having just lost Indochina, sent a bunch of troops and fought a war that lasted 7 years. Large number of atrocities led to it being labeled the "dirty war". Charles de Gaulle helped get France out of the mess.
             Jacobo Arbenz - leader of Guatemala who was deposed in 1954 when a small-scale insurgency composed of Guatemalan dissidents and CIA pilots forced the leftist regime from power. The operation that the Bay of Pigs was based on.
             Aswan High Dam - 1955, an immense Egyptian power and irrigation project that was funded by the U.S. and British to keep Egypt out of the communist camp. When Egypt formally recognized communist China they withdrew their financial and technical assistance. Nasser proceeded to nationalize the Suez Canal, and the Soviets offered their assistance to Egypt. Israel feared for its safety, so together with France and Britain they attacked Egypt. They did this behind the U.S. back, annoying us and forcing us to disapprove of the actions of our closest allies while supporting the Soviets. The invasion was unsuccessful and showed how important the U.S. was to Europe.
             Austria - one of key issues between west and east was removal of Soviet troops from Austria. When this did finally happen, U.S. did the same thing, it proved to be a slight easing of tensions.
             Baghdad Pact - a pact created in 1955 by the U.S. and Britain. Formed CENTO, which incorporated Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan into a new alliance system. This alliance proved counter-productive as it helped to alienate the Egyptians and other Arab nationalist states, paving way for increased Soviet influence in Middle East.
             Bandung Conference - 1955, Nehru, the leader of India helped create Conference of Non-aligned Nations.

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