Affirmative action is the nation's most ruthless attempt to redress its long history of racial and sexual discrimination. However, nowadays it incites rather than ease the nations inner-governmental tension. An increasing aggressive oppositional movement argues that the battle to guarantee equal rights for all citizens has been fought and won- and seeking constant forgiveness for a certain group is just against the grain. The battle against affirmative action has gone so far as to halting affirmative action in places such as Missouri, and even drastically ending affirmative action in California. The proponents of affirmative action said that the proposition would bring a positive effect to California, however it has made the battle to guarantee equality more complex. Ending affirmative action in California has caused a drastic drop in the number of minorities admitted into the UC system, the lower amount of women in higher education programs in California and the decrease of women and minorities in the workforce and business granted contracts. .
In order to understand why proposition 209 has drastically affected California one must first understand affirmative action. Affirmative action was born of the civil rights movements about three decades ago, affirmative action called for minorities and women to be given special consideration in employment, education and contracting decisions. After the United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in 1964, certain items became apparent. What seemed like the norm in business traditions, such as seniority status and aptitude test, prevented total equality in employment. Then, President Lyndon B. Johnson decided that some action should be taken as a remedy to these flaws. On September 24, 1965, he issued an executive order numbered 11246 at Howard University. This order required federal contractors "to take Affirmative Action to ensure that applicants are employed, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.