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            The political theorist Charles Louis Montesquieu was born in 1689 in France and was nobility by birth. He succeeded his father as magistrate and lived during the Enlightenment. Montesquieu had the goal of identifying one law that explains society. Through his works The Persian Letters, The Spirit of the Laws he established his political and social views on society. In The Persian Letters Montesquieu related the current happenings in Europe at the time. He used the novel to point out religious intolerance, which he was opposed to. Montesquieu believed in religious toleration. It differs from different regions of people with their customs and beliefs. This explained his disdain for religious persecution. This religious toleration has been incorporated into the United States where people have a freedom of religion. Montesquieu also believed that the geography, climate and weather, customs, and type of people shape and form the type of government and general principle of a country. In addition the laws of each type of government are different from each other. Each area has a general spirit as explained in The Spirit of the Laws. The general spirit determines the general principle. The general spirit of despotism is fear. No laws are needed because life depends on the whim of the dictator. Deserts are only suited for tyranny. Desert life is suited to despotism since the conditions in a desert are harsh and resources scarce. One leader forcing his will on everyone else in order that society will survive. Vast empires come under the rule of despotism in many cases. There are not any rules governing inheritance or women and education promotes ignorance and fear. A monarchy is best adapted to a moderate size area with a temperate climate. The general principle of monarchy is honor. People must honor the monarch and each other. Where the wealth is concentrated in the king or nobility, in the case of an aristocracy, one must have laws regarding inheritance of property.

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