∆ This chapter takes another viewpoint to look at both the Soviet communist system and Marxism more generally.
∆ We assess the development of the Stalinist model considering its resent demise.
∆ By outlining the Marxist critique of liberalism, we distinguish the usefulness of Marxism as a critical approach from the merits of the Soviet system of governance.
◈ Revisiting the Soviet Communist Theory of the Press.
∆ The Soviet Communist Theory of the Press is the most difficult to explain. To understand it fully, we must be familiar with nineteenth- and twentieth-century world history, Marxist ideals, Russian and Soviet history, and the weakness and strengths of the capitalist system.
The Intellectual Climate in which Four Theories was written.
∆ The choice to describe a "Soviet" theory rather than a "Marxist" theory tells us that highlighting the contrast between American and Soviet values was a key goal.
It also implies a desire to separate liberal, intellectual acceptance of some Marxist doctrines in the 1950s from an approval of press controls and subjugation of individual rights under the regime of Stalin.
∆ The Soviet communist ideology was misinterpreted to reflect a "cult of personality", thus the press was used to reflect Stalin's desires and personal leadership rather than support the revolutionaries' originally outlined goals.
∆ Although the Soviet Union, then, was one of the mightiest military and economic forces in the world, most Soviet citizens were in abject poverty. This dichotomy eventually led to a demand for reform.
∆ Wilbur Schramm, recognizing a distinction between Marxist ideals and the application of these principles in the Soviet Union, focused on a formless "Soviet communist theory" that we would summarize as a Stalinist system. In his essay of Four Theories, Schramm compared Nazi Germany with the Soviet Union, as he attempted to implant in his readers' minds an image of "red fascism".