From the work of researchers such as Ekman, Turner, Bavelas, Grice, McCormack, to name a few, we have a better understanding of how and why deception take places during our conversations with other people. From withholding information, to misleading the listener, to just plain not telling them everything that they need to know to make a knowledgeable decisions, we find that deception (which means to cause to believe what is not true (American Heritage Dictionary, 1994)), is taking place within our daily conversations. Through the work of these researches on deception we now understand that we need a workable framework for describing deceptive messages. The goal of Information Manipulation Theory is to not only give you a workable framework for describing deceptive messages, but also a way for examining information manipulation, or the different observable forms of deceptive messages. (McCormack, 1992, p. 4) .
In understanding the IMF (Information Manipulation Theory) we need to first understand the basic idea that McCormack is presenting in this article. He first talks about the different type of research on the ways that deception take place, it states that there are four primary ways in which a person can deceive, and at any time an individual can achieve one or more of these ways. Four primary ways of deception are: manipulating the amount of information that is disclosed, distorting the information that is disclosed, presenting the information in an equivocal fashion, and/or presenting information that is irrelevant to the preceding discourse. (McCormack, 1992 p. 4) .
Once there is a general understanding of how these four ways work we can then move on to the Information Manipulation Theory and use the basic framework to apply these different types of deception. The basic framework consist of Grice 1989 idea that participants taking place in interaction are expected to follow the Cooperative Principles (CP), which is the idea that the maximum of quantity, quality, manner, and relation will be followed.