There are many differences and similarities between Spartan and Athenian society. Neither was typical of Greek polis, both were large in comparison to other Greek city-states. Sparta restricted citizenship and developed a territorial state. Athens developed a democratic constitution. Both were similar in they used Greek language, alphabet, along with similar religious and mythic traditions. .
Sparta is a located in Laconia, in the south central Peloponnesian plateau, its size and population is small in comparison to Athens with a citizen population of only 40,000. Spartan government was not typical of a Greek polis; its government resembled that of a territorial state, a primitive form of communism. Decisions in the Spartan government were made by the Gerousia which was a council of 28 elders who were at least 60 years old. There were 5 magistrates called Ephors who acted as citizen governors, and an assembly of primitive decision makers who were citizens of at least 30 years old called the Apella. Sparta's population including not only the citizens was 200,000. This population number includes three types of people, the Spartans known as the equals, the Helots who were slave-serfs numbered 80,000, and the Perkioikoi who were the neighboring peoples on the Peloponnesian who numbered 150,000. Spartan's were out numbered by the Helots in Laconia due to their restricted citizenship. .
Spartan society was based on conditioning, they lived lives of necessity and rarely did people come or go. Spartan government reflects that of simple communism, that exploits its serfs, Helots. Spartans didn't have family lives, because Spartan men were soldiers, it was a barracks society. Only through military service could they achieve citizenship at the age of 30. The Agoge system was military training that Spartan boys began at age 5. Sparta was a soldier state that was feared by other Greek city states because of the Agoge.