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Advertising Criticisms

             Advertising is, "any form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor" (Dominick 369). The main components of the advertising industry are the advertisers, the advertising agencies and the media (374). The advertisers are further divided into national advertisers and retail advertisers. National advertisers market their products or services around the country. Retail advertisers are small, local advertisers, and are mostly the small businesses themselves rather than represented by a large agency (376). The advertising agencies are "independent business organization[s] composed of creative people and business people who develop, prepare, and place advertising for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services." There are full-service agencies that handle many aspects of advertising, media buying services that buy radio or television advertising time and resell it to business or other advertising agencies, a creative boutique, which creates original and creative advertising strategies for companies (377). The media is the final main component of the advertising industry, and depends on advertising for its survival. Advertising specialists have four dimensions in which they evaluate the media: reach, frequency, selectivity and efficiency. Newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, outdoor, direct mail, and the Internet are evaluated to determine the most effective form of advertising for the advertiser (378-379). There are several ways to advertise, such as a primary demand ad, selective demand type ad, direct action ad, indirect action ad, and marketing. A primary demand ad promotes a product rather than promoting a brand in competition with another, while a selective demand type ad promotes a brand. A direct action ad usually allows the consumer to see results quickly and aids the company in consumer awareness, while an indirect action ad works to establish a company and boast a good name rather than concern itself with the needs and demands of the customer.

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