-Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.
-Inhibition of Histone Deacetylation.
This paper reviews current research on G1 phase progression in human cancer. The effects of mutations in cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases, as well as p53 and Rb pathways on cancer onset is also examined. A major regulatory role in G1 phase progression involves extracellular signaling which activates the introduction of the first G1 phase cyclins in the cell. The induction of this early event is important in the completion of later events. If any of the G1 phase cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases, or regulatory pathways responsible for cell cycle control are affected by mutations, abnormal cellular proliferation and cancer is probable.
The eukaryotic cell cycle is a complex system of checks and balances that ensure the fidelity of cellular proliferation. Over the past few years, there has been considerable interest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The role of the regulatory proteins: cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases, and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, as well as two important regulatory pathways: Rb and p53, in the G1 phase has been extensively studied in human cancer. Research suggests that abnormalities in any of these proteins or pathways can lead to increased cellular proliferation and in many cases, cancer. However, the extent to which these key players work in deregulating the cell cycle in G1 has yet to be fully understood. This paper will provide background information on cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, as well as p53 and Rb pathways in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, a brief overview of current research in the G1 phase relationship with human cancer will also be examined. Applications for this research will also be discussed, along with suggestions concerning future lines of research that may lead to other avenues of cancer therapy.