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Reduction of human malaria by controlling or altering insect

            Malaria is a complicated and severe disease widespread throughout the tropical zone and in many areas of the temperate zones (Barlow, R. 1968). It is caused by parasitic protozoa, which is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasitic protozoa are single-celled organisms that live in both human host and insect vector, and (roll back 1998) can kill by infecting and destroying red blood cells (anaemia) and by clogging the capillaries that carry blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) or other vital organs. This parasite is from the genus Plasmodium which can affect various groups of vertebrates such as reptiles, birds and mammals. There are more than 100 species in the genus but only four species causes malaria in humans. They are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. These four different species of parasite varies in severeness and are to some extent different from each other in form and produces different symptoms. More than two species of plasmodium can occur in the same place and is able to infect an individual at the same instance (fact sheet). Plasmodium falciparum is the most fatal type of malaria infection characterized by fever, headache, vomiting, weakness and other flu-like symptoms. Falciparum malaria is commonly found in Africa and may cause death in its more severe form. Plasmodium vivax, the most geographically widespread species, is responsible for much incapacitating illness but is less severe compared to the falciparum malaria. P. vivax infection can stay dormant and relapse for up to 3 years if not properly treated. Plasmodium malariae infection produces typical malaria symptoms and can also persist in the blood for a very long time without ever producing symptoms. This asymptomatic P. malariae is still transmittable but is not generally a serious problem as it is not as severe and limitedly distributed in Africa.

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