They are in radios, stereos, cell phones, pagers, microwave ovens, kitchen appliances, and medical equipment. In this report, I will give some properties of semiconductors and the reason for their use. Then, we will describe the process of making semiconductors and some of their applications. .
Semi-conductors are materials that have a mediate electrical conductivity. They are neither good electrical conductors nor good electrical insulators. In general, metals are inherently good electrical conductors, while Ceramics and polymers (non-metals) are generally poor conductors but good insulators. So the three semiconducting elements (Si, Ge, and Sn) from column IVA of the periodic table serve as a kind of transition between metallic and nonmetallic elements. Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) are widely used in semiconductors. GaAs, a compound of the group IIIA element Ga; and As from the group V element, is another important semiconductor material.
Semiconductor's history begin in 1830. Early semiconductors were a group of elements and compounds that operate as poor conductors when they are heated. Applying Electrical beam on thse semiconductors would generate a one directional electrical current. By 1874, electricity was being used to carry power, and to carry information (telegraph, telephone), but most important application was the radio were the earliest devices that would use semiconductor. Radio receivers required a device called a rectifier to detect signals. Thus, a diode was created, it was a semiconductor material composed of lead sulfide. This material was first used by Ferdinand Braun to detect signals and was the first aplication of the semiconductors.
Until 1959, all electronic components performed only one function and in order to create functional circuits they had to be wired together. In 1959, a new process called planar technology was developed by Jean Hoerni and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductors labs.