Schizophrenia is any group of psychotic reaction characterized by withdrawal from reality with highly variable affective, behavioral, intellectual, and physical disturbances of the mind, body, and soul. Schizophrenia is defined as a psychosis that begins before about forty-five years of age, and is marked by a great variety of symptoms, including hearing voices, feeling one's thoughts, action, and emotions are controlled by an outside agency; delusion; and flatness or inappropriateness of affect (Sutherland, 1996). Individuals with schizophrenia suffer severe deterioration of mental abilities and speech may become wholly incoherent. Schizophrenia is classified into four subtypes, which will be discussed in this paper.
The first type of schizophrenia is called simple schizophrenia, which is the simple or undifferentiated type of schizophrenic, manifests an insidious and gradual reduction in his external relations and interest. His emotions lack depth, his ideation is simple and refers to concrete things, and there is a relative absence of mental activity, a progressive lessening in the use of inner resources, and a retreat to simpler or stereotyped forms of behavior (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2003).
Next, is hebephrenic or disorganized schizophrenia, which displays shallow and inappropriate emotional response, foolish or bizarre behavior, false beliefs and false perceptions (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2003). Disorganized schizophrenia is characterized by a severe disintegration of the personality. Behavior is odd, encompassing grimacing, grunting, sniffing, posturing, rocking, stereotyped behaviors, and uninhibited sexual behaviors such as masturbating in public (Fortinash and Holoday-Worret, 1995). .
The third type of schizophrenia is the catatonic, which is characterized by striking motor behavior. The individual may remain in a state of almost complete immobility, often assuming statuesque positions.