Equality often refers to the right of different groups of people to have a similar social position and receive the same treatment. However, we consider here that equality in a society means that everyone has the same quality, same ability and same amount of property. Inequality is the absence of the above instance and is emphasized in Plato's utopia. He believes that human beings are not able to be equal in many ways and a just society is actually built from inequality. .
It is obvious that human beings survive in inequality. People nowadays are against the term "inequality" and refer it in a negative way. In Plato's argument, inequality is essential. Let us see how his ideal world is related to human inequality and how practical it can be.
II. Principle of Specialization.
The best society Plato suggests, is a society that everyone is doing their "appropriate occupations" which are determined by their natural quality. This is the central idea of the Principle of Specialization, in which, people are not alike as they have innate difference. When different individuals fit into different positions, increasing productivity gives a raise in quality of the society. This is the benefit why we form a society. Moreover, it is the best to have a society with specialists, in which everyone provides the best in the position because it can match people's aptitude to the tasks. And also skillful specialists can increase the output with the best quality. This is the best structure, Plato believes, of a society, namely Plato's utopia.
The fundamental premise Plato introduces is the idea of "innate difference". Without this difference, the Principle of Specialization becomes impossible according to Plato's theory. We have to admit that there is no equality within any society. However, we can have fairness if we define "fairness" by "in accordance with what is deserved". They do not have necessarily to be equal.