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Basics of Electromagnetism

             Light, microwaves, x-rays, and TV and radio transmissions are all kinds of electromagnetic waves.
             same kind of wavy disturbance that repeats itself over a distance called the wavelength. .
             The wave, or "disturbance," is in an invisible thing called the electric force field. .
             To understand electric forces, we have to learn something about charged particles like .
             electrons and protons. Without these charged particles, there can be no electric .
             force fields and thus no electromagnetic waves. .
             What are electrons and protons?.
             An electron is a particle with negative charge and not much mass. The positively charged .
             proton exerts an invisible, attractive force on the electron -- an electric force.
             the electric force is like an invisible spring, but as the charges move farther apart, .
             a weaker spring pulls them together.An electron's motion depends on both the force on the .
             electron and its velocity, which are often in different directions. .
             What is a Force field?.
             In physics, a force field is a way to picture the effects that electric charges .
             have on one another. Instead of talking about the force a positive (+) charge.
             exerts on an electron, we can say the charge creates a force "field" in the empty space around it. An electron put down at any place in this force field is pulled .
             towards the + charge; a positive charge set down at the same place is pushed away.
             What are Spectral Lines?.
             At the end of 19th century, physicists knew there were electrons inside atoms, .
             and that the wiggling of these electrons gave off light and other electromagnetic radiation.
             But there was still a curious mystery to solve. Physicists would heat up different .
             elements until they glowed, and then direct the light through a prism. .
             They found bright lines of certain colors. Actually, "color" isn't the right term, because only some of the lines were visible.
             Each type of atom gives off a unique set of colors. The colored lines (or Spectral Lines) .

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