WEB DuBois once described the Reconstruction as "[the] period in which the Negro stood briefly in the sun and then stepped back into slavery-. The end of the Reconstruction in the mid 1870's did not shed much light on situation because it left Blacks legally subjected to the same conditions as before. As an example, the Plessey vs. Ferguson Supreme Court case of 1896 legally made Blacks second-class citizens through its separate but equal' decision. Given the failure of the Reconstruction, three influential and contrasting individuals, Booker T. Washington, WEB DuBois, and Marcus Garvey, decided to address the matter of equality amongst Black and white America, respectively. Along with these men is a perhaps not so famous leader by the name of Samuel DeWitt Proctor. Just like these men, Proctor was stricken by the unfairness and unequal treatment of Blacks in this country; however, he decided to address the injustice through his belief in faith, thus the title of his book The Substance of Things Hoped For.
Booker T. Washington's key strategy can be summarized in one word, pragmatism "here and now. As a former slave, Washington's strategies were premised upon the realities of the South. He urged Blacks to educate themselves and get involved in practical occupations. Washington believed that education was the key to Black economic success, thus his intended Faustain Bargain. He argued that in exchange for quiet politics (giving up civil rights, higher education, and political rights), Blacks should have economic opportunity. Washington suggested this bargain partly because he believed that economic advancement would lead the way to addressing other issues. He believed that races needed to start at the bottom, and work its way up gradually (step by step). Although, Washington publicly played by the white man's law', he secretly aided Black movements of resist. For example, red neck southerners that supported Washington were unaware that he was taking funds and aiding the civil rights movement.