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The Tudor Age 1485-1603

             Population Changes in the time of the Tudor dynasty:.
             In the year 1348 between 4 and 5 million people lived in England and Wales. Several plagues reduced the number of inhabitants to 2.5 million peole (England, Wales). There was a stagnation in population growth until 1520s. And so in the year 1525 2.26 million peole lived in England, when the population started rising until 1601 to the number of 4.1 million people.
             In general the living standart declined as the population growed:.
             the pressure on the food supplies made the food more expensive.
             the wages of workers lost their finacial force; dropped 57 per cent since 1500.
             Starvations: 1481-3, 1519-21, 1527-8, 1544-5, 1549-51, 1555-8, 1585-8, 1595-8 caused by poor harvests, bad weather.
             Henry VII 1485-1509.
             v born in 1457; son of Edmund Tudor and Magret Beaufort.
             v became king of England through personal fight: after defeating Richard III in the battle of Bosworth he proclaimed himself as the king of Enfland.
             v he brought law and order to England after a long time of civil war.
             v during his reign there were several conspiracies.
             v he married Elisabeth of York who gave birth to 4 children: Arthur, Henry, Margaret and Mary.
             v new political inventions were 1.) the "Commitee of the Privy Council 1) - and 2.) the "Court of Star Chamber 2) -, 3.) feudal obligation was replaced by trade and law.
             v he died after reigning 24 years in 1509.
             1) the Committee has the function of a parliament; it was a forerunner of the modern parliament.
             2) the room was covered with stars; the royal influence in civil and criminal cases increased with that court.
             Henry VIII 1509-1547.
             v born in 1491 as son of Henry VII and Elisabeth of York.
             v he married six women: Catherine of Aragon (1509-33) gave birth to Mary; Anne Bolyn (1533-1536) became another daughter: Elisabeth, she was executed for infidelity; Jane Seymour (1536) died as Edward was born; Anne Cleves (1540) the marriage was never consumpted; Catherine Howard (1540-1542 also executed) and finally Catherine Parr until Henry VIII's death.

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