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Chinese Self-strengthening mov

            This essay analyses the failure of the Chinese Self-strengthening movement of the.
             It argues that the movements' failure was due to its proponents.
             fundamental ignorance of the requirements for industrial modernisation, due to their.
             continued belief in the institutions and traditions of Confucianism, and their great concern.
             to protect China's sovereignty from Western imperialism. This is shown by the.
             progressives limited vision of modernization, which they saw in terms only of acquiring.
             Western military technology, and not in terms of the reform of Chinese institutions. Nor.
             could they overcome conservative Confucian opposition, which feared that the changes.
             would bring only social disharmony. The Self-strengtheners concern to protect China's.
             sovereignty, led them to reject foreign loans and to rely on domestic resources only. This.
             forced them to rely on a policy of 'slow' modernization, which ultimately failed when put.
             to the test twenty years later. Finally, their lack of technical knowledge, combined with a.
             'blind faith' in Western experts, created a fundamental contradiction between desires and.
             actions, whereby the Self-strengtheners actually destroyed the very technology they so.
             desperately needed.
             The Self-strengthening movement in nineteenth century China was the direct outcome.
             of China's humiliation from the 1860 peace settlement, and was predicated on the dictum.
             of Wei Yuan: learn the superior techniques of the barbarians to control the barbarians.
             With this idea as it's motivating spirit, the Self-strengthening movement began to both.
             advocate, and to carry out, the modernization of China. Yet this attempt at.
             modernization was ultimately unsuccessful. This paper analyses the failure of the Self-.
             strengthening movement and argues that, Firstly, its failure was due to its having a limited.
             vision of modernisation, based on a fundamental ignorance by the progressives to the.
             complexity of industrialisation.

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