In 1829, Andrew Jackson became president and quickly instituted a removal policy. In 1830, the United States passed the "Indian Removal Act." Many Americans were against the act, but, it passed anyway. President Jackson (who argues that "no state could achieve proper culture, civilization and progress, as long as Indians remained within its boundaries") quickly signed the bill into law. Jackson ordered that Five Civilized Tribes, the Cherokees, Creed, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles, must move from the southern states to the Indian Territory, now known as Oklahoma- a word that means "red people." In a "permanent treaty," it was sworn to be the Indian's Promised Land "for as long as grass grows and water flows"- which meant until the white man wanted more land. .
The Cherokees attempted legal resistance to removal. They declared themselves an independent nation within Georgia, in 1827, just to have the Georgia legislature pass laws giving it power over the nation. Then the Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokees were not a state or a nation, also ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" and were there entitled to protection. This decision carried out only a little because at first the court seemed to rule against the Indians. After that, the US Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee, ruling that the Cherokee Nation was a supreme individual nation. .
The Cherokee then had to agree in a removal in a treaty. The treaty would have to be ratified by the Senate. The Cherokee were divided by 1835. Supported by Principal Chief John Ross, who fought the intruding of whites starting with the land lottery in 1832. A minority of less than 500 out of 17,000 Cherokee in North Georgia followed Major Ridge, his son John, and Elias Boudinot, who wanted removal. The Treaty of New Echota gave Jackson the legal document he needed to remove the First Americans, which was signed by Ridge and members of the Treaty Party in 1835.