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Moishe's Holocaust Experience

            The oldest of four children, Moishe Felman, was raised in a Jewish home in the town of ŁDŹ located in Central Poland. His parents ran a grain business and he attended a public school in town in 1933. .
             1933-1939 At the end of summer break, Moishe turned fifteen. On September 8, 1939, before beginning his new year at school, the Germans invaded the city, making it a part of the territory annexed to the Reich, known as the Wartagau, thus including ŁDŹ in the Final Solution. The German force was very harsh in its treatment to the Jews in ŁDŹ; along with genocide, they forced labor, confiscated property, and blew up synagogues. The Anti-Semitism continued on September 28, 1939 when the Germans destroyed Moishe's family's grain business. .
             1940-1942 The Jews of the ŁDŹ ghetto lived without running water or even sewer connections. The Judenrat controlled all of the aspects of food, work, and shelter. The Germans formed a Jewish Council to keep order amongst the population of the ghetto. Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski was a member of this council and he thought that by making the Jews do work for the Nazis, their lives would be spared. Moishe woke up every morning like every other ŁDŹ Jew and went to work within the confines of the ghetto. The working conditions were very harsh in these places and nobody was fed during the work day. This act of "clean violence- lessened the guilt that some Nazis would face. In the ghetto and the workplace Nazis dehumanized the Jews by replacing their names with tattooed numbers on their bodies. The Nazis brought 20,000 Jews and 5,000 Roma (Gypsies) from Germany, Luxemburg, and Czechoslovakia to the ŁDŹ ghetto.
             The Nazis became even more discontent with the ŁDŹ ghetto even though it had impressive productivity and profits. In 1942 Moishe was taken along with 55,000 Jews and 5,000 Roma to the Chelmno, all murdered in gas vans by using Zyklon-B.

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