Genetic Manipulation is not a new thing just coming around now. Farmers use principles of manipulation just by choosing the best of their cattle to reproduce so there next herd has come from the genes of the very best of the last. Over time the farmers cows will be healthier, produce more milk, or better milk and be selectively bred to bigger to produce more beef. It is not only farmers anyone who has ever taken aspirin or planted flowers or watered there lawn has manipulated nature in a way, but this is only the beginning of genetic manipulation these are just the ideas it was started on. In 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick published their ideas on the Double Helix structure of DNA. They were able to find out DNA was composed of sugar/phosphate strands and branching between them are Nucleotides which provide the codes that are used in translation to make proteins that do functions of the cell. In 1972 Paul Berg created the first Recombinant DNA. Berg did an experiment where he was able to put different DNA into cells so they would produce a different kind of protein they had not made in the past. In 1975 these technologies were used to develop the Southern Blotting Method for finding detecting specific DNA sequences, which has been commonly been used in proving guilt or innocence of the suspect. If there was a struggle at a murder scene between the victim and the murderer they can match the DNA in the blood with the suspects DNA to find out if it was the same person who was at the scene. In the past diabetic patients who needed insulin had to use insulin from pigs and oxen's pancreases, but in 1978 the ideas of Berg were used by a company called Genetech. One of Genetech's scientists Eli Lilly used the Recombinant DNA ideas of Paul Berg to clone Human insulin for diabetic patients in E.Coli and Yeast just by splicing a gene that the bacteria's normally would not have had. Now 92% of the insulin used in diabetic patients comes from the Bacteria's.