1)Hobbes had a very negative view on human nature, and he believed that every person in the state of nature was out to pillage and loot everyone else for their personal benefit. To Hobbes's natural human nature was the epitome of all human selfishness.
De Tocqueville on the other hand, believes that democracy leads to selfishness. This is because with democracy also comes liberty and equality, which leads to one of America's proudest points.individualism. De Tocqueville argues in favor of aristocratic nations for the reason that in that political formation everyone is looking out for everyone, above and below them in the class scale, instead of just themselves. Democracy severs the links between people. De Tocqueville believes that individualism becomes selfishness in democratic societies because in equal societies ties are cut. It's just you, and all you need to look out for is yourself, and no one is looking out for you.
4)Locke's views on the nature of freedom differ from Rousseau in the sense that Locke believes that freedom is established with government. He believes that laws give us the freedom to live as we like without fearing things like loss of property. Locke believed that people gained more freedom once society and laws were established, because the need to punish people was taken out of their hands into the hands of the law. People could stop worrying about their hard work being stolen and focus on just living. Locke didn't seem to feel that the state of nature was very free at all. .
Rousseau on the other hand believed that man is initially born free. Rousseau doesn't deny the need for a society, but he believes in a society that is for the general will of the people. Every single person must be happy with the society and the decisions in order for it to be successful, happy, and free, as opposed to Locke's majority rule idea. From the looks of what he writes, he seems to be looking for the true form of socialism that is for the people by the people.