The Indus Valley civilization was founded around 2,500 B. in the western part of South Asia, in what today is Pakistan and western India. It is often referred to as Harappan Civilization after its first discovered city, Harappa. It existed for about 1,000 years. The earliest traces of civilization are to be found in places along or close to the Indus River. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China. It wasn't discovered until the 1920's. Most of its ruins remain to be excavated. These include major cities. The excavations were first conducted in 1921-1922, in the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The script of this civilization hasn't been deciphered. Basic questions about the people who formed this very complex culture are unanswered. .
The Indus Valley people were most likely Dravidians who may possibly have been pushed down into south India when the Aryans, with more advanced military technology, began their migrations to India around 2,000 BCE. The people of the Indus Valley domesticated animals, and harvested a variety of crops, such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. They had a commercial status that suggests that they engaged themselves in a lot of trade. Harappan inventions include an instrument which was used to measure whole section of the horizon and the tidal dock. Also, the Harappans developed new methods in metallurgy, and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The contributions of the Indus Valley Civilization to the fields of science and technology are numerous. The Harappans were also big lovers of the fine arts, especially of dancing, painting, and plastic arts. Various sculptures, pottery, seals, gold jewelry, terracotta figures and other interesting works of art indicate that the Harappans had excellent artistic awareness. The art of the Harappans is rather unique. The people of the Indus Valley used script, dialect, and area bound varieties.