Friedrich Nietzsche - (1844-199); German philosopher; challenged the belief in progress and the general faith in the rational human mind; believed that Western civilization had lost its creativity and decayed into mediocrity; condemned political democracy and greater social equality.
2. Jean Paul Sartre - (1905-1980); French existentialist; believed that humans simply exist and did not believe in God, reason, and progress.
3. existentialism - philosophy that basically said God did not exist and human existence as unexplainable; came of age in France during the years immediately followed World War II; terrible conditions of the war reinforced the existential view of life.
4. Albert Schweitzer - (1875-1965); theologian who wrote Quest of the Historical Jesus; argued that Christ while on earth was a completely natural man whose teachings had been only temporary rules to prepare himself and his disciples for the end of the world.
5. Soren Kierkegaard - (1813-1855); Danish religious philosopher; ideas were extremely influential, rejected formalistic religious and denounced the worldliness of the Danish Lutheran church; eventually resolved his person anguish over his imperfect nature by making a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic God.
6. Karl Barth - (1886-1968); Swish Protestant theologian; similar ideas to Kierkegaard; his influential writings sought to re-create the religious intensity of the reformation; his basic thought of humans was that they are imperfect, sinful creatures, whose reason and will are hopelessly flawed.
7. Gabriel Marcel - (1887-1973); French existential Christian thinker; found in the Catholic church and answer to what he called the postwar "broken world"; Catholicism provided the hope, humanity, honesty, and piety for which he hungered .
8. Jacques Maritain - (1882-1973); countryman; w/ Marcel, denounced anti-Semitism and supported closer ties with non-Catholics.